(Rhaphiolepsis indica) is a small, slow-growing evergreen shrub ideal for sunny locations. It’s not hard to care for. Hence it holds a neat, rounded shape naturally, without pruning.
The shrub looks excellent year-round and becomes a focal point in spring when large, loose clusters of fragrant, pink, or white flowers bloom.
The flowers are followed by tiny blueberries that attract wildlife. Read on to find out how to grow Indian hawthorn.
Indian hawthorns are cultivated due to their attractively tidy, grouped build and bundles of flowers.
The aromatic, pinkish, or white crabapple-appearance flowers unravel in clusters on the top of the vegetation from mid-April to May.
Blue-black berries appear in late summer and persist through the winter. The leathery, dark evergreen leaves are rounded 2 to 3 inches long, turning purplish in winter.
1. How to Grow Indian Hawthorn
Rhaphiolepis indica is an evergreen; hence the dark green, leathery foliage stays on the branches through the year, picking on a purple color over winter.
The shrub endures winters in moderate climates and is graded for USDA plant hardiness zones 8 to 11.
You’ll find plenty of uses for Rhaphiolepis indica shrubs. Planted close together, they outline a dense hedge.
You can also use rows of Indian hawthorn as barriers or dividers between sections of the garden. The plants tolerate salt spray and salty soil types, so they are ideal for seaside planting.
Indian hawthorn in pots. Rhaphiolepis indica plants grow well in containers so that you can use them on patios, decks, and porches too. Indian hawthorn care begins with planting the shrub in a location where it can thrive.
It thrives best in the high sun but will tolerate afternoon shade as well. Planting Indian hawthorn where it receives too much shade causes the shrub to lose its neat, compact growth habit.
It isn’t picky about the soil, but it’s good to work in some compost before planting if the ground is heavy clay or sand.
The various species and cultivars grow between 3 and 6 feet wide and spread a little further than their height, so space them accordingly.
2. Care for Rhaphiolepis indica Shrubs
Water sowed Indian hawthorn shrubs evenly to hold the soil moist till they are well-established and start sprouting on fresh foliage.
When established, the Rhaphiolepis indica accepts mild drought. Fertilize the plant for the first time in the spring of the year after planting and every spring and fall after that.
Feed the shrub lightly with a general-purpose fertilizer. Indian hawthorn rarely requires pruning.
One may need to prune lightly to remove dead and damaged branches, and you can do this pruning any time of year. If the shrub needs additional pruning, do so immediately after the flowers fade.
Entomosporium leaf spot, caused by the fungus Entomosporium mespili, is the most common disease of Indian hawthorn. It is most damaging following periods of frequent rainfall in the spring and fall.
The first symptoms are tiny, round, red spots on both the upper and lower sides of young leaves.
These expand and on heavily diseased leaves, merge, forming large, irregular blotches. Severe infections may result in early leaf drop.
Slow the spread of disease by properly spacing plants to improve air movement—water shrubs with drip irrigation rather than overhead sprinklers. If sprinklers are used, only water established plants once per week as needed during the growing season and apply one inch of irrigation water each time. Collect and discard fallen diseased leaves during winter, and then mulch the shrubs.
Diseased shrubs may be sprayed with Daconil (chlorothalonil) when new leaves first appear in spring until early June. Spray every ten days during rainy spring weather or every two weeks during dry spring weather. Addition sprays may be needed in the fall. Follow label directions for rates and safety. See Table 1 for examples of brands and specific products.
Winter injury has become more common and was quite severe during the winter of 2014-2015 when many Indian hawthorns in South Carolina were
Killed. Plants weakened by stresses from improper fertilization and irrigation, exposure to lawn weed killers, and foliar disease may lead to root rot caused by cold weather. Test the soil in landscape beds for proper fertilization.
This same disease also affects red tip photinia and pears (such as Bradford pear) but may also be found on pyracantha, quince, and loquat. For this reason, red tip photinia is rarely still found for sale.
The best way to prevent leaf spots on Rhaphiolepis indica is to plant selected resistant cultivars, grow them in a full sun site, and use drip irrigation.
Indian Hawthorn Information
Common Name: Indian hawthorn
Species: Raphiolepis (raf-i-oll’ep-is) indica (in’di-ka), a member of the Rosaceae family. Raphiolepis is Greek for needle scale, referring to bracts in inflorescence (flowering part of the plant); indica, from India.
Size: See varieties below.
Form: Spreading with irregular branching. Alternate thick, leathery leaves.
Description: Dark green foliage can be purple in winter. April flower, terminal panicles, pink or white. Fall fruit, black or purplish small berries (persist through winter). Slow growth rate.
Varieties: Snow White, dwarf form, pure white flowers from early spring to early summer, good resistance to leaf spot. Enchantress grows to 3 feet high and 5 feet wide, and rose-pink spring blooms.
Dwarf Yedda, Grows 3-4 feet tall and wide. Pink Lady or Springtime, grows to 4 by 6 feet, deep pink flowers, resistant to leaf spot.
Majestic Beauty, fast grower (grows to 10 feet or more in 10 years), pearl-pink flowers in spring, good resistance to leaf spot.
Exposure: Sun (for greater spread and more flowers) or part shade. Tolerates wind and salt spray.
Culture: Prefers slightly alkaline soil with medium drainage and fertility. Drought tolerant.
Pruning: None needed. For more compact plants, pinch back branch tips after flowering.
Uses: Attractive, dense background plants, informal hedges.